this organisation was created in 2001 with 6 members. five members were already part of Shanghai five mechanism and Uzbekistan joined 6th and then it became Shanghai Co-operation.
shanghai five is a political association of five countries based on confidence building in the border area of countries. then agreement on mutual reduction on arms forces in border area.
shanghai five Russia,chaina, Kazakhstan, kirigistan,tajakistan +uzbekistan in year 2001.
By the addition of uzbekistan it became shanghai coperation organisation.
In 2002, the chartter was signed at saint peters-berg were signed in place called astana (also called noor sultan) in kazakistan and came into force in September 2003.
Now total membership is 8 countries. and there are four observer state afghanistan ,iran, belarus, mangolia.
SCO has observer status in UN General Assembly and it has been the case sins 2005. And from july 2019 to 20 the sco presidency is with russia federation and following instruction sco has mainly focused on reginal security issue perticularly fight against regional terorrerrism and religious extremism and also ethenic separatism.
internal policy of this organisation based on principal of mutual trust, benefits, and equality. where as its external policy based on principals of non alignment, non targeting of any third country and also openess.
sco has two permanent bodies:
- SCO secretariat in Beijing china
- executive anti-terror structure (eats) trashcan in Uzbekistan.
it has two official language of working russian and chinease.
note: Asian Development bank also has its headquater in bejing.
there is also business council of organisation founded in 2006, it is a independent non governmental entity.